In October I gave the opening keynote at PyConIreland on The Real Unsolved Problems in Data Science. One of the topics I covered was poor quality data, by some estimates data cleaning occupies 50-80% of a data scientist’s time.
Personally I’ve just spent the better part of last year figuring out ways to convert poorly-represented company names on 100,000s CVs/resumes to a cleaned subset for my contract recruitment client (via my ModelInsight). This enables us to build ranking engines for contract job applicants (and I’ll note happily that it works rather well!). It only works because we put so much effort into cleaning the raw data. Huge investments like this are expensive in time and money, that carries risk for a client. Tools used include NLTK, ftfy, Pandas, scikit-learn and the re module, all in Python 3.4.
During the keynote I asked if anyone had tooling they could open up to make this sort of task easier. I didn’t get a lot of feedback on that so I’ve had a crack at one of the problems I’d discussed on my annotate.io.
The mapping of raw input data to a lower-dimensional output isn’t trivial, but it felt like something that might be automated. Let’s say you scraped job adverts (e.g. using import.io on adzuna, both based in London). The salary field for the jobs will be messy, it’ll include strings like “To 53K w/benefits”, “30000 OTE plus bonus” and maybe even non-numeric descriptions like “Forty two thousand GBP”. Theses strings are collated from a diverse set of job adverts, all typed by hand by a human and there’s no standard format.
Let’s say we’re after “53000”, “30000”, “42000” as an output. We can expand contractions (“<nbr>K”->”<nbr>000), convert written numbers into an integer and then extract the number. If you’re used to this sort of process then you might expect to spend 30-60 minutes writing unit tests and support code. When you come to the next challenge, you’ll repeat that hour or so of work. If you’re not sure how you want your output data to look you might spend considerably longer trying transformation ideas. What if we could short-circuit this development process and just focus on “what we have” and “what we want”?
More complex tasks include transforming messy company name strings, fixing broken unicode and converting unicode to ASCII (which can ease indexing for search) and identifying tokens that need to be stripped or transformed. There’s a second example over at Annotate and more will follow. I’m about to start work on ‘fact extraction’ – given a block of text (e.g. a description field) can we reliably extract a single fact that’s written in a variety of ways?
Over at Annotate.io I’ll be uploading the first version of a learning text transformer soon. It takes a set of example input->output mappings, learns a transformation sequence that minimizes the transformation distance (hopefully to a distance of 0 meaning it has solved the problem) and then it can use this transformation sequence on future text you pass into the system.
The API is JSON based and will come with Python examples, there’s a mailing list you can join on the site for announcements. I’m specifically interested in the kind of problems you might want to put into this system, please get in contact if you’re curious.
I’m also hoping to work on another data cleaning tool later. If you want to talk about this at a future PyDataLondon meetup, I’d love to chat.
Ian applies Data Science as an AI/Data Scientist for companies in ModelInsight and in his Mor Consulting, sign-up for Data Science tutorials in London. He also founded the image and text annotation API Annotate.io, lives in London and is a consumer of fine coffees.